Saul Bass

Saul Bass was born on May 8, 1920 in Bronx, New York, but moved to Los Angeles in his mid-twenties in order to pursue a career in Graphic Design. He was extraordinarily diverse and talented, where it regarded design, as he worked in both print design and movie animation. Bass was perhaps best known for his design of film posters and title sequences. During his 40-year career Bass worked for some of Hollywood’s greatest filmmakers, including Alfred Hitchcock, Stanley Kubrick, Otto Preminger, Billy Wilder, and Martin Scorsese. He became well-known in the film industry after creating the title sequence for Otto Preminger’s “The Man with the Golden Arm” in 1955.

Screenshot 2015-10-25 15.50.15 Bass, Opening Titles for Psycho (1960), Screenshot, 2015

For Alfred Hitchcock, Bass designed effective and memorable title sequences, inventing a new type of kinetic typography, for “North by Northwest”, “Vertigo” (in collaboration with John Whitney), and “Psycho”. In addition, Bass also designed some of the most iconic corporate logos in North America, including the original AT&T “bell” logo in 1969, as well as their “globe” logo, which came later in 1983. He also designed Continental Airlines’ “jetstream” logo (in 1968) and United Airlines’ “tulip” logo (in 1974), all of which became some of the most recognized logos of the era.

0 Bass, AT&T (Globe logo), Corporate Logo, 1983

In 1955, Elaine Makatura, began to work with Bass; with both getting married working on the opening title sequence to “Spartacus” (1960), and producing mostly collaborative work thereafter. After the birth of their children, Jennifer in 1964 and Jeffrey (in 1964 and 1967, respectively), the Basses concentrated on their family, short films, and title sequences. Their first joint venture into short filmmaking was with promotional films for pavilions at the 1964 World’s Fair, “From Here to There for United Airlines” and “The Searching Eye for Eastman Kodak”. In 1968, the creative couple made the Oscar-winning short film “Why Man Creates”.

Toward the end of his career, Bass was “rediscovered” by James L. Brooks and Martin Scorsese, who urged the Basses to return to main title design. For Scorsese, they created title sequences for “Goodfellas”, “Cape Fear”, “The Age of Innocence”, and “Casino” (done in 1995 and would be their last title sequence and a picture of Bass’ revered and often imitated legacy). In a sense, all modern opening title sequences that introduce the mood or theme of a film are a legacy of the Basses’ work.

Works influenced/inspired by Bass

saul_bass_inspired_hunger_games_poster_by_deathlytriforce-d5iwrr3 Catherine, Saul Bass-inspired Hunger Games Poster, Poster, 2012

SBstraitjacket Rob Kelly, Saul Bass’ Strait Jacket, Poster, 2011


Henderson, K. (2012). 20 Graphic Designers You Should Know. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from

Saul Bass. Retrieved on October 25, 2015, from


Eric Gill

Eric Gill (born Arthur Eric Rowton Gill) on February 22, 1882 in Brighton, England, was son to a non-conformist minister and raised in a cult. From 1899 to 1903, Gill apprenticed to an architect in London, he became smitten with the world of calligraphy or lettering. This was evoked through classes that he attended, given by Edward Johnston at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London. He was profoundly influenced by Johnston’s dedicated approach to work and decided to join the world of the Arts and Crafts.

It is said that Gill, during his lifetime, set up three self-sufficient religious communities where, surrounded by his followers and attendants, he continued work as a sculptor, sign painter, wood-engraver and type designer. He also wrote constantly and prodigiously on his favourite topics; those being, social reform, the integration of the body and spirit, the evils of industrialisation, and the importance of the working man. In 1905–09, Gill produced initials and book covers for Insel publishers in Leipzig; and designed initials for the Ashedene Press in 1906. In 1907, he moved to Ditchling, Sussex, where he produced stone sculptures, including a few for the BBC building in London. He converted to Catholicism in 1913 and this influenced his sculpture and writings. While devout, he was known for his unusual sexual behaviour; suggested to be pedophilia and incest.

Eve_by_Eric_Gill Gill, Eve, Engraving, 1911

In 1914, Gill produced sculptures for the stations of the cross in Westminster Cathedral in London. He worked for the Golden Cockerell Press from 1925 to 1931, where he produced initials, illustrations and an exclusive text type. Having moved to Pigotts near High Wycombe in 1928, he worked at the London Underground’s administrative headquarters. Thereafter, he and his son-in-law founded their own hand-press, which printed luxury bibliophile editions. His work continued, as in 1930, Gill created illustrations for the last number of “The Fleuron” magazine, and was made a Royal Designer for Industry in 1936. Another of his well-known works is the stone tablets for the League of Nations building in Geneva, done in 1938.

1024px-Eric-Gill---Nude-woman-reclining-on-a-leopard-skin-(1928) Gill, Nude woman naked reclining on a leopard skin, Graphite drawing, 1928

He designed his first typeface, “Perpetua”, for Stanley Morison who had badgered him for years on this matter. Of all the eleven typefaces that he designed, “Gill Sans” is his most famous and most widely used; a clear modern type and became the letter of the railways – appearing on their signs, engine plates, and timetables. The typeface was strongly influenced by the London Transport lettering of his teacher Edward Johnston, was the first successful sans type based on the humanist models of the Renaissance. Gill’s best known type designs were produced by the Monotype Corporation, although he also designed type for private presses. Another of his designs is “Joanna”, named after his daughter. Gill died on November 17, 1940, and is noted as having described himself, on his gravestone, as a stone carver.

Works influenced/inspired by Gill

EricGill--GillSans-1926-Poster-by-DanielleBello-2014 Danielle Bello, Eric Gill Gill Sans 1926 Poster, Poster, 2014

396px-GillSansEG_svg Jim Hood, Specimen of the typeface Gill Sans, Typeface, date unknown


Eric Gill. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from

Eric Gill. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from

Font Designer – Eric Gill. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from

Milton Glaser

Milton Glaser was born on June 26, 1929, and educated at the High School of Music and Art and the Cooper Union art school in New York. Through a Fulbright Scholarship, he furthered his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bologna, Italy. But Glaser’s life has been about creating spaces for artistic development and production, platforms for expressions, and collaborative work. In 1954, along with fellow Cooper Union graduates Seymour Chwast, Edward Sorel, and Reynold Ruffins, Glaser founded the revolutionary Pushpin Studios. Alongside Chwast, he directed the studio for the next twenty years, while it grew as a major contender and reference in the practice of graphic design, globally. He also founded the New York Magazine in 1968, with Clay Felker, and established Milton Glaser, Inc. some six years later. Added to this, he joined with Walter Bernard in 1983, forming the publication design firm, WBMG; who boast clientele like “LA Times”, “Boston Globe”, “Time”, “AdWeek” and “Brill’s Content”.

iHeartNy-8744 Glaser, I ♥ NY, Logo, 1977

Throughout his career, Glaser has been a prolific creator of posters and prints, including the infamous I ♥ NY logo which is proudly worn by many tourists to the city and residents alike. His artwork has been featured in exhibits worldwide, including one-man shows at both the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris and the Museum of Modern Art in New York. His work is in the permanent collections of many museums. Glaser also is a renowned graphic and architectural designer, and is an influential figure in both the design and education communities; having contributed essays and granted interviews extensively on design. Among the many awards throughout the years, he received the 2004 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, for his profound and meaningful long-term contribution to the contemporary practice of design.

70307-740x740-1345562610-primary Glaser, The Secret of Art, Print, 2008

To many, Glaser is the embodiment of American graphic design during the latter half of the 20th Century, and he continues to be quite a formidable force in the process and practices of graphic design. He is regarded as being immensely creative and articulate; a modern renaissance man and one of a rare breed of intellectual designer-illustrators. Glaser brings a depth of understanding and conceptual thinking, combined with a diverse richness of visual language, to his highly inventive and individualistic work.

Works influenced/inspired by Glaser

milton_glaser_calendar_by_b0bisabuilder Alfonso, Milton Glaser Calendar, Typography Calendar, 2008

14966e499e513c59812a0b096d3fe46e Trenay Moodley, Erykah Badu Tour Poster, Poster, 2014


Henderson, K. (2012). 20 Graphic Designers You Should Know. Retrieved September 4, 2015, from

Milton Glaser. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from

Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Gropius was born May 18, 1883, in Berlin, Germany. His father was an architect, and Gropius followed suit, studying in Munich (from 1903-1904) and in Berlin-Charlottenburg (from 1905-1907). He also worked briefly in an architectural office in Berlin (1904) and served in the military (1904–05). Before completing school, Gropius built the farm labourers’ cottages in Pomerania in 1906. For a year, he travelled in Italy, Spain, and England and, in 1907, joined the office of the architect Peter Behrens in Berlin, in whose practice his lifelong interest in progressive architecture and interconnection of the arts would be shaped.

Fagus_Werk_Alfeld_Leine_vorne Gropius, Fagus Works (Fagus-Werk), Factory, 1911

However, he left Behrens in 1910, and established his own architecture practice in Berlin. His collaborative efforts are also noteworthy, in his work with Adolph Meyer in the design of the Fagus Works at Alfeld-an-der-Leine (in 1911) and the model office and factory buildings in Cologne (in 1914) done for the Werkbund Exposition. During that World War I, Gropius served as a cavalry officer on the Western Front, was wounded, and received the Iron Cross for bravery. In 1915 he married a widow, Alma (Schindler) Mahler, but they divorced in 1919. Their only child, Alma Manon, died in 1935.

027_154_haus_sommerfeld_0_0 Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Sommerfeld House, Residence, 1920-1922

In April 1919, he became director of several schools, all of which were immediately united as Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar (“Public Bauhaus Weimar”). Gropius resigned as director of the Bauhaus in 1928 to return to practice privately as an architect in Berlin. From 1929 to 1930, he designed a portion of a housing colony in Berlin–Siemensstadt. Unsympathetic to the Nazi regime, he and his second wife, Ise Frank, whom he had married in 1923, left Germany secretly via Italy for exile in England in 1934. Gropius’ brief time in England was marked by collaboration with the architect Maxwell Fry that resulted in their important work, Village College at Impington, Cambridgeshire (in 1936).

In February 1937, Gropius arrived in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to become professor of architecture at Harvard University. The following year, he was made chairman of the department, a post he held until his retirement in 1952. In addition, Gropius collaborated with Marcel Breuer, a former Bauhaus pupil and later fellow teacher, from 1937 until 1940. In 1946, with six of his former Harvard pupils as partners, Gropius formed The Architects Collaborative (TAC), based in Cambridge; realizing many great projects, including the Harvard University Graduate Center (1949–50) and the United States Embassy in Athens (in 1960). Gropius exerted a major influence on the development of modern architecture, and died on July 5, 1969, in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Works influenced/inspired by Gropius

DD20100720-faucets-4 Waterworks, The Henry Collection, Bathroom fittings, 2010

Kendall Albers Foundation 31 LR Eoghan Hoare, Director’s Waiting Room, Josef and Anni Albers Foundation building, 2015


Walter Gropius. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from

Walter Gropius. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from

Paul Renner

Paul Renner was born August 9, 1878 in Wernigerode, Germany. He is said to have been raised to exude and demonstrate a German sense of leadership, duty and responsibility, and was known for his mistrust of abstract art and numerous forms of modern culture, as exemplified in jazz music, dancing and the cinema. At the same time, he admired the principle of function, as purported by Modernism. As it regards typefaces, Renner attempted to fuse the Gothic and Roman kinds. His beginnings included the study of architecture and painting in Berlin, Munich and Karlsruhe, after which he worked as a painter in Munich.

renner_fontsample01_d12367i28 Renner, Font Sample, Font, date unknown

From 1907 to 1917, Renner worked as the production assistant and presentation manager for Georg Müller Verlag in Munich. Then, in 1911, he co-founded a private school for illustration; and from 1925 to 1926, was head of the commercial art and typography department at the Frankfurter Kunstschule. Immediately afterwards, Renner was made the director of the city of Munich’s Grafische Berufsschulen and, from 1927, the Meisterschule für Deutschlands Buchdrucker. As a representative of the German Reich, Renner was at the helm of the design of the German section at the Milan Triennale, as of 1933. In this same year, he was dismissed from teaching after being arrested. After being forced to leave his post at the Meisterschule, he worked as a painter from 1934 onwards. He was harassed by the Gestapo in 1944, after an attempt was made to assassinate Hitler; wherein some of his relatives were implicated.

Paul-Renner-in-Letterform-Archive-Calendar Renner, First specimen of Futura, Font, 1927

On another note, Renner would also take time to write on topics pertaining to typography, lettering, graphics and colour studies. It must be noted that we produced the following fonts: “Futura” and “Plak” (in 1928), “Futura Black” (in 1929), “Futura licht” and “Futura Schlagzeile” (in 1932), “Ballade” (in 1937), “Renner Antiqua” (in 1939), and “Steile Futura” (in 1954). As well as being most famous and renown as designer of the typeface Futura, Renner made a significant contribution to modern typography through his teaching and writing. His major published work would be “Die Kunst der Typographie” (1939). Paul Renner died on April 25, 1956 in Hödingen, Germany; but lived to have been noted as an astounding graphic artist, painter, type designer, author, and teacher.

Works influenced/inspired by Renner

93e45725802881.5604cf30f21f0 Soo Yeun Ji, Paul Renner Poster, Poster, 2012

b8300b30208073.56057526dead8 Zen Lam, Poster Design – Futura and Paul Renner, Poster, 2012


Font Designer – Paul Renner. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from

Paul Renner. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from

Claude Garamond

Claude Garamond (originally Garamont) was born in about 1480 in Paris, France, and is reputed to be among the greatest and foremost type designers, and “the best type cutter of his day”. He was also an engraver, letter founder, punch cutter and publisher, but it is the elegance of his typefaces that remain highly regarded, even today. But, he was greatly influenced and produced a wealth of works.

In 1510, Garamond trained as a punch cutter with Simon de Colines. Ten years later, he was an apprentice to Geoffroy Tory, a French humanist and engraver. In 1530, in an edition of Erasmus’ book, “Paraphrasis in Elegantiarum Libros Laurentii Vallae”, Garamond had his first type used. Interestingly, the type was based on one called “De Aetna”, cut by Aldus Manutius in 1455, and was called “Garamond”. Importantly, “this small Roman type became the standard European type of the day and was still in use in the 18th Century. During most of the 20th Century, most leading foundries around the world have redrawn their own versions of Garamond’s typeface, and Garamond’s roman is still regarded today as one of the classic typefaces.”

typeparis-bnf_13 Garamond, Gros Canon, Specimen, date unknown

But Garamond’s collaborations would continue as, from 1545 onwards, he worked as a publisher alongside Pierre Gaultier, first, and then Jean Barbe. During this time, he published David Chambellan’s book, “Pia et Religiosa Meditatio”. Garamond was known as being quite innovative as well, as the roman and italic types that he designed were done as metal types, and not as imitations of handwriting. These said roman letter forms were greatly respected in his native France, and elsewhere, greatly influenced the switch from the gothic or black letter as the standard in printing.

01 Garamond, Garamond roman, Granjon italic, Specimen, date unknown

Several contemporary typefaces, including those currently known as “Garamond”, “Granjon”, and “Sabon”, reflect his influence. Garamond was the first to specialize in type design and punch-cutting as a service to others. As the first type designer and punch-cutter to retail his punches to other printers, Garamond helped to shape the future of commercial printing and to spur the widespread dissemination of new typefaces. Some modern type designs given his name are not closely related to his, but are based on types that were mistakenly attributed to him.

Garamond died in 1561, and following his death, Christoph Plantin from Antwerp, the Le Bé type foundry and the Frankfurt foundry Egenolff-Bermer acquire a large proportion of Garamond’s original punches and matrices. The typefaces Garamond produced between 1530 and 1545 are considered the typographical highlight of the 16th century.

Works influenced/inspired by Garamond

peto_steve_w4a3 Steve Peto, Bio and Graphic Design Poster, Poster, 2012

1d78ea54daf2c7db  Angel Acevedo, Typography Competition Poster, Poster, 2007


Claude Garamond. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from

Font Designer – Claude Garamond. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from

Garamond, Claude. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from

Giambattista Bodoni

Giambattista Bodoni was born in Saluzzo, Italy on February 16, 1740. He born into a family of printers and, at eighteen years of age, went to Rome where he became a student of Abbate Ruffierei in the Vatican polyglot press of the Propaganda Fide. In 1768, Bodoni became the head of the Royal Printing House in Parma, known as the “Stamperia Reale”. Bodoni worked in many closely related areas, as he was a graphic designer, typographer, type-designer, compositor, publisher and printer. In his time at the “Stamperia Reale”, it is said that Bodoni “first oriented himself towards the fonts of Pierre [Simon] Fournier of Paris”. However, he would soon develop his own typefaces. In effect, Bodoni abandoned the use of old-style letters and “introduced a new clear simple type – the Modern typeface”; having been inspired by the typography of John Baskerville. Three years after he started working in Parma, he produced the first of his font pattern books, entitled “Saggio tipografivo di fregi e maiuscole” (or, in English, “Wise typographic friezes and capitals”). This was followed by the printing of a homage book, in 1775, which was printed in twenty five languages.

typeparis-bnf_11 Bodoni, Q. Horatii Flacci, Specimen, date unknown

Bodoni was allowed to form his own printing works in 1791, by his employer, Duke Ferdinand, in order to have his service and talent retained. Around 1800, Giambattista Bodoni established an entirely new form of type which “refrained from decorative padding and was conceived solely on the criteria of symmetry and proportionality”. This ushered in the well-recognised and classical font, “Bodoni”, which continues to be used frequently by typesetters and is considered to be a “masterpiece of typography”. Also among his most well-known works is the Lord’s Prayer, which Bodoni printed, in 1806, in one hundred and fifty five languages; and the printing of Homer’s “Iliad” in 1808.

Houghton_TypTS_825.18.225_-_Bodoni,_non-Roman_characters Bodoni, Non-roman character samples, Manuscript, ca. 1800

Giambattista Bodoni, who was described as the “prince of typographers” and “printer of kings”, died in 1813. Arguably his most important work, the “Manuale tipografico”, was published posthumously by his widow, Margherita Dall’Aglio, in 1818. Besides the one hundred and forty two fonts, it also included a collection of flowering ornamentals and geometric patterns. The book also declared, according to Bodoni, the four principles of type design “from which all beauty would seem to proceed… which were regularity, cleanness, good taste, and charm.” Bodoni’s typefaces echoed his sense of appearance and beauty, which were built on simplicity and purity of form.

Works influenced/inspired by Bodoni

BODONI Bodoni, Bodoni Poster, Poster, 2013

70th-Birthday-Party-Invitations-McMillian-and-Furlow2-550x412 Mauro’s Fly Fishing Inspired 70th Birthday Invitations, 2012


Famous Graphic Designers – Giambattista Bodoni. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from

Giambattista Bodoni. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from

Giambattista Bodoni. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from

Paul Rand

Paul Rand, born Peretz Rosenbaum on August 15, 1914, in Brooklyn, New York, was an Orthodox Jew. This is significant because Jewish law prohibits the “creation of graven images that can be worshiped as idols”, which made his development of icons attached to global capitalism seem “unlikely”. Although Rand studied at the Pratt Institute (1929-1932), the Parsons School of Design (1932-1933), and the Art Students League (1933-1934), in New York, he was viewed as having been self-taught, “learning about the works of Cassandre and Moholy-Nagy from European magazines”. Rand was one of the originators of the Swiss Style of graphic design, and also taught design at the Yale University from 1956 to 1969, and resuming in 1974.


Rand. Corporate Logos

First line (from left to right): ABC (1962), Cummins (1962), UPS (1961), Tipton Lakes (1980).

Second line (from left to right): Yale University Press (1986), Westinghouse (1960), NeXT (1986), Hilbros Watch company (1944).

In terms of his career, Rand started out creating stock images for a syndicate supplier to newspapers and magazines, on a part-time basis. Simultaneously, he amassed a large portfolio of work, including pieces from his classes; “largely influenced by the German advertising style Sachplakat (ornamental poster) as well as the works of Gustav Jensen.” At this time, he decided to disguise the obvious Jewish identity of his name, shortening his given name and adopting “Rand” from an uncle; which served as his first work in corporate identity and is said to be his most endearing symbol and brand created. Rand’s defining corporate identity was his IBM logo in 1956; modified in 1960, and further (to the striped logo) in 1972.

apparel_2 Rand, Apparel Arts (January – February, 1941), Magazine Cover, 1941.

In ‘A Designer’s Art’, Rand showed favour for works by the likes of Paul Cezanne and Jan Tschichold, and appreciation for modernist philosophy and its “underlying connections:

‘From Impressionism to Pop Art, the commonplace and even the comic strip have become ingredients for the artist’s caldron. What Cezanne did with apples, Picasso with guitars, Leger with machines, Schwitters with rubbish, and Duchamp with urinals makes it clear that revelation does not depend upon grandiose concepts. The problem of the artist is to defamiliarize the ordinary’.”

Deconstructing the idea of recognition of what appears simple was critical to Rand’s design choices. In creating packaging for light bulbs by Westinghouse, he was able to execute these ideas. Rand was inducted into the New York Art Directors Club Hall of Fame in 1972, and died of cancer on November 26, 1996.

Works influenced/inspired by Rand

paul_rand_quote_by_tedikuma Theodore Taylor III. Paul Rand Quote, Poster, 2006

ff0ea29099587.560c87840d396 Sam Hurst. Paul Rand Lecture Poster, Poster, date unknown.


Paul Rand: A Brief Biography. Retrieved October 18, 2015, from

Paul Rand. Retrieved October 18, 2015, from

Adrian Frutiger

Adrian Frutiger was born on May 24, 1928, in Unterseen, Switzerland to parents who were both weavers. At a tender age, he is said to have begun “experimenting with stylized handwriting and invented scripts”; thereby rebelling against the standard cursive being taught in Swiss schools. After having attended school, at the age of sixteen, he was made an apprentice (serving as a compositor) to Otto Schlaeffli, a printer in Interlaken. At the same time, he took classes in drawing and woodcuts at the Gewerbeschule in Bern under Walter Zerbe, for three years. After such education and years of experience, he moved to Paris in 1952, and took up the job as the artistic director at the type foundry, Deberny & Peignot. In 1962, he turned to forming a studio for graphic arts along with Andre Gürtler and Bruno Pfäffli, in Arcueil near Paris. All this time, he incorporated his love for sculpting in his typeface designs.



But what were some of his works and other involvements? Aside from the large number of his now world famous typefaces, including Univers and Frutiger, he also created signets, logos, corporate typefaces and corporate identities for various publishers and industrial enterprises. For the airport in Paris Orly and the Paris Metro, he conceived new lettering systems and created a new information system for the Charles de Gaulle airport.

In addition, with the emergence of computers, his type (called “OCR B”), used for automatic reading, became a worldwide standard in 1973. Frutiger was also a lecturer for ten years at the Ecole Estienne and at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts Decoratifs, for eight years. He had also given and conducted numerous seminars around the world.

From 1963 to 1981, he was responsible for the design and adaptation of typewriter and composer fonts at the IBM World Fair. Many argue that Frutiger created some of the most used typefaces of the 20th and 21st century. As a typographer, he was one of few who had a career that traversed “hot metal, photographic and digital typesetting.” He had also been instrumental in refining his own typefaces to include more weights and true italics, some examples are Frutiger Next and Avenir Next. Adrian Frutiger died on September 10, 2015, at age eighty seven.

Works influenced/inspired by Frutiger

AdrianFrutiger-Avenir-1988-poster-by-InesVital-1988 Ines Vital, Adrian Frutiger Avenir Poster, Poster, 1988

WEBFRUTIGER Michael R. Sweeney. Frutiger, Digital Print, date unknown


Adrian Frutiger. Retrieved October 18, 2015, from

Famous Graphic Designers – Adrian Frutiger. Retrieved October 18, 2015, from

Type – Adapted to Everyday Life. Retrieved October 18, 2015, from